Questões de Inglês de Vocabulary

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FCC - TRT 24ª - Técnico Judiciário - Operação de Computador - 2006
Inglês / Vocabulary

Embedding Python in Your C Programs
By William Nagel on Fri, 2005-12-30 02:00.
Software C, meet Python. Python, this is C. With surprisingly little effort, the Python interpreter can be integrated into your program to add features quickly that could take months if written entirely in C.
The language of choice for large, high-performance applications in Linux is almost always C, or somewhat less often C++. Both are powerful languages that allow you to create highperformance natively compiled programs. However, they are not languages that lend themselves to runtime flexibility. Once a C/C++ application is compiled, its code is pretty much static. At times, that can be a real hindrance. For example, if you want to allow users of a program to create plugins easily that extend the application"s functionality, you have to deal with complex dynamic linking issues that can cause no end of headaches. Additionally, your users will have to know C/C++ in order to extend the application, which severely limits the number of people capable of writing extensions.

A much better solution is to provide your users with a scripting language they can use to extend your application. With a scripting language, you will tend to have much more runtime flexibility, as well as shorter development times and a lower learning curve that will extend the base of users capable of creating extensions.
Unfortunately, creating a scripting language is very much a nontrivial task that easily could become a major portion of your program.
Fortunately, you don"t need to create a scripting language. With Python, you can embed the interpreter directly into your application and expose the full power and flexibility of Python ...... adding very much code at all to your application.
(Adapted from www.linuxjournal.com/article/8497)


No texto, hindrance pode ser traduzido por

a) vantagem.
b) defeito.
c) solução.
d) barreira.
e) avanço.

FCC - TRT 24ª - Técnico Judiciário - Operação de Computador - 2006
Inglês / Vocabulary

Embedding Python in Your C Programs
By William Nagel on Fri, 2005-12-30 02:00.
Software C, meet Python. Python, this is C. With surprisingly little effort, the Python interpreter can be integrated into your program to add features quickly that could take months if written entirely in C.
The language of choice for large, high-performance applications in Linux is almost always C, or somewhat less often C++. Both are powerful languages that allow you to create highperformance natively compiled programs. However, they are not languages that lend themselves to runtime flexibility. Once a C/C++ application is compiled, its code is pretty much static. At times, that can be a real hindrance. For example, if you want to allow users of a program to create plugins easily that extend the application"s functionality, you have to deal with complex dynamic linking issues that can cause no end of headaches. Additionally, your users will have to know C/C++ in order to extend the application, which severely limits the number of people capable of writing extensions.

A much better solution is to provide your users with a scripting language they can use to extend your application. With a scripting language, you will tend to have much more runtime flexibility, as well as shorter development times and a lower learning curve that will extend the base of users capable of creating extensions.
Unfortunately, creating a scripting language is very much a nontrivial task that easily could become a major portion of your program.
Fortunately, you don"t need to create a scripting language. With Python, you can embed the interpreter directly into your application and expose the full power and flexibility of Python ...... adding very much code at all to your application.
(Adapted from www.linuxjournal.com/article/8497)


A palavra que preenche corretamente a lacuna no último parágrafo é

a) by.
b) simply.
c) without.
d) if.
e) but.

FCC - SEFAZ-SP - Agente Fiscal de Rendas - 2006
Inglês / Vocabulary

Avoidance and evasion compared:
The United States example

The use of the terms tax avoidance and tax evasion can vary depending on the jurisdiction. In the United States, for example, the term "tax evasion" (or, more precisely, "attempted tax evasion") generally consists of criminal conduct, the purpose of which is to avoid the assessment or payment of a tax that is already legally owed at the time of the criminal conduct. (The term "assessment" is here used in the technical sense of a statutory assessment: the formal administrative act of a duly appointed employee of the Internal Revenue Service who records the tax on the books of the United States Treasury after certain administrative prerequisites have been met. In the case of Federal income tax, this act generally occurs after the close of the tax year - and usually after a tax return has been filed.)
By contrast, the term "tax avoidance" is used in the United States to describe lawful conduct, the purpose of which is to avoid the creation of a tax liability. Tax evasion involves breaking the law; tax avoidance is using legal means to avoid owing tax in the first place. An evaded tax remains a tax legally owed. An avoided tax (in the U.S. sense) is a tax liability that has never existed. A simple example of tax avoidance in this sense is the situation where a business considers selling a particular asset at a huge gain but, after consulting with a tax adviser, decides not to [VERB] the sale. __ 97___ no sale occurs, no gain is realized. The additional income tax liability that [TO GENERATE] by the inclusion of the gain on the sale in the computation of taxable income is simply not incurred, as there was no sale and no realized gain.

(Adapted from Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/w iki/Tax_evasion)


No texto, after a tax return has been filed pode ser traduzido como

a) depois de ter sido entregue a declaração de imposto de renda.
b) depois da restituição do imposto de renda.
c) depois do preenchimento da guia de recolhimento do imposto de renda.
d) depois de a declaração de imposto de renda ter sido processada.
e) depois de retificada a declaração do imposto de renda.

FCC - Banco Central - Analista - Area 1 - 2006
Inglês / Vocabulary

The Internet at Risk

Some 12,000 people convened last week in Tunisia for a United Nations conference about the Internet. Many delegates want an end to the U.S. Commerce Department"s control over the assignment of Web site addresses (for example, http://www.washington-%20post.com/ ) and e-mail accounts (for example, johndoe@aol.com). The delegates" argument is that unilateral U.S. control over these domain names reflects no more than the historical accident of the Internet"s origins. Why should the United States continue to control the registration of French and Chinese Internet addresses? It doesn"t control the registration of French and Chinese cars, whatever Henry Ford"s historic role in democratizing travel was.

The reformers" argument is attractive in theory and dangerous in practice. In an ideal world, unilateralism should be avoided. But in an imperfect world, unilateral solutions that run efficiently can be better than multilateral ones that __ 51 ____

The job of assigning domain names offers huge opportunities for abuse. __ 52 ___controls this function can decide to keep certain types of individuals or organizations offline (dissidents or opposition political groups, for example). Or it can allow them on in exchange for large fees. The striking feature of U.S. oversight of the Internet is that such abuses have not occurred.

It"s possible that a multilateral overseer of the Internet might be just as efficient. But the ponderous International Telecommunication Union, the U.N. body that would be a leading candidate to take over the domain registry, has a record of resisting innovation _ including the advent of the Internet.

Moreover, a multilateral domain-registering body would be caught between the different visions of its members: on the one side, autocratic regimes such as Saudi Arabia and China that want to restrict access to the Internet; on the other side, open societies that want low barriers to entry. These clashes of vision would probably make multilateral regulation inefficiently political.
You may say that this is a fair price to pay to uphold the principle of sovereignty. If a country wants to keep certain users from registering domain names (Nazi groups, child pornographers, criminals), then perhaps it has a right to do so. But the clinching argument is that countries can exercise that sovereignty to a reasonable degree without controlling domain names. They can order Internet users in their territory to take offensive material down. They can order their banks or credit card companies to refuse to process payments to unsavory Web sites based abroad. Indeed, governments" ample ability to regulate the Internet has already been demonstrated by some of the countries pushing for reform, such as authoritarian China. The sovereign nations of the world have no need to wrest control of the Internet from the United States, because they already have it. (Adapted from Washington Post, November 21, 2005; A14)


No segundo parágrafo, should indica

a) permissão.
b) possibilidade.
c) recomendação.
d) obrigação.
e) probabilidade.

FCC - Banco Central - Analista - Area 1 - 2006
Inglês / Vocabulary

The Internet at Risk

Some 12,000 people convened last week in Tunisia for a United Nations conference about the Internet. Many delegates want an end to the U.S. Commerce Department"s control over the assignment of Web site addresses (for example, http://www.washington-%20post.com/ ) and e-mail accounts (for example, johndoe@aol.com). The delegates" argument is that unilateral U.S. control over these domain names reflects no more than the historical accident of the Internet"s origins. Why should the United States continue to control the registration of French and Chinese Internet addresses? It doesn"t control the registration of French and Chinese cars, whatever Henry Ford"s historic role in democratizing travel was.

The reformers" argument is attractive in theory and dangerous in practice. In an ideal world, unilateralism should be avoided. But in an imperfect world, unilateral solutions that run efficiently can be better than multilateral ones that __ 51 ____

The job of assigning domain names offers huge opportunities for abuse. __ 52 ___controls this function can decide to keep certain types of individuals or organizations offline (dissidents or opposition political groups, for example). Or it can allow them on in exchange for large fees. The striking feature of U.S. oversight of the Internet is that such abuses have not occurred.

It"s possible that a multilateral overseer of the Internet might be just as efficient. But the ponderous International Telecommunication Union, the U.N. body that would be a leading candidate to take over the domain registry, has a record of resisting innovation _ including the advent of the Internet.

Moreover, a multilateral domain-registering body would be caught between the different visions of its members: on the one side, autocratic regimes such as Saudi Arabia and China that want to restrict access to the Internet; on the other side, open societies that want low barriers to entry. These clashes of vision would probably make multilateral regulation inefficiently political.
You may say that this is a fair price to pay to uphold the principle of sovereignty. If a country wants to keep certain users from registering domain names (Nazi groups, child pornographers, criminals), then perhaps it has a right to do so. But the clinching argument is that countries can exercise that sovereignty to a reasonable degree without controlling domain names. They can order Internet users in their territory to take offensive material down. They can order their banks or credit card companies to refuse to process payments to unsavory Web sites based abroad. Indeed, governments" ample ability to regulate the Internet has already been demonstrated by some of the countries pushing for reform, such as authoritarian China. The sovereign nations of the world have no need to wrest control of the Internet from the United States, because they already have it. (Adapted from Washington Post, November 21, 2005; A14)


Ainda no primeiro parágrafo, os dois períodos Why should the United States continue to control the registration of French and Chinese Internet addresses? e It doesn"t control the registration of French and Chinese cars, whatever Henry Ford"s historic role in democratizing travel was. podem ser ligadas, sem alteração de sentido, pela conjunção

a) because.
b) however.
c) despite.
d) if.
e) unless.

CESGRANRIO - BNDES - Profissional Básico - 2006
Inglês / Vocabulary

INTERNATIONAL WOMEN"S DAY

Some 40 women entrepreneurs from the Middle East and North Africa told a World Bank-sponsored roundtable that education and wealth were usually not enough to overcome barriers to business in their countries. The women made it clear they still faced barriers men might not.

For example, a Harvard-educated woman had to establish a medical waste management company under her brother"s name, because women were not allowed to be issued licenses in her country. Another woman building the first private petrochemical terminal in the Persian Gulf could not take her two foreign business partners to lunch because she had to sit in the women"s section of the restaurant.

The examples show that women make up an increasing number of small, medium and large-scale producers, investors, and entrepreneurs in the Middle East and North Africa region, and they are creating significant number of jobs in the process. But as the world marks International Women"s Day today, the examples also show there are many, usually gender-based, obstacles in their way - including obstructed access to decision makers, inaccessibility of finance, unequal treatment under the law, and resistant social norms.

The women who took part in the World Bank"s recent roundtable were among those who made it despite the hurdles - successful owners or founders of businesses in a wide variety of sectors from Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, WBG, Lebanon, Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Yemen, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. But as statistics and anecdotal evidence show many other women are held back, costing the Middle East and North African countries millions of jobs; the region has the world"s lowest rate - 32 percent - of female workforce participation. "
The World Bank"s goal is to increase women"s entrepreneurship to strengthen the private sector, create jobs, and advance women"s empowerment through economic opportunities," says Nadereh Chamlou, Senior Advisor and Gender Coordinator in the Office of the Chief Economist for the Bank"s Middle East and North Africa (MENA ) region. The Middle East and North Africa region needs to create some 90 million jobs over the next 20 years - "twice as fast as in the past," says Mustapha Nabli, Chief MENA Economist at the World Bank. "These jobs can only be created by a competitive and diversified private sector, since the public sector and oil-driven models of the past have failed to create the needed jobs." […]
Women in the Middle East and North Africa have considerable financial resources, sometimes through inheritance. A study in one country found $26.6 billion in women"s bank accounts sitting idle because of laws and regulations, which prevented women from opening businesses. Other obstacles were more cultural than structural, such as the negative perception often attached to working women in the Middle East and North Africa. […]

In the United States, women-owned business is the fastest growing segment of the private sector which has an impact on the productivity and competitiveness of the economy. With the investments that the Middle East and North Africa has made to advance women"s education, identifying and removing barriers that women face to start up their businesses can spur growth, according to the Bank.

News and Broadcast, March 8, 2006



The words "establish" and "prevented" could be replaced in text with, respectively:

a) purchase - avoided.
b) certify - refrained.
c) set up - stopped.
d) register - escape.
e) create - disturbed.

CESGRANRIO - BNDES - Profissional Básico - 2006
Inglês / Vocabulary

INTERNATIONAL WOMEN"S DAY

Some 40 women entrepreneurs from the Middle East and North Africa told a World Bank-sponsored roundtable that education and wealth were usually not enough to overcome barriers to business in their countries. The women made it clear they still faced barriers men might not.

For example, a Harvard-educated woman had to establish a medical waste management company under her brother"s name, because women were not allowed to be issued licenses in her country. Another woman building the first private petrochemical terminal in the Persian Gulf could not take her two foreign business partners to lunch because she had to sit in the women"s section of the restaurant.

The examples show that women make up an increasing number of small, medium and large-scale producers, investors, and entrepreneurs in the Middle East and North Africa region, and they are creating significant number of jobs in the process. But as the world marks International Women"s Day today, the examples also show there are many, usually gender-based, obstacles in their way - including obstructed access to decision makers, inaccessibility of finance, unequal treatment under the law, and resistant social norms.

The women who took part in the World Bank"s recent roundtable were among those who made it despite the hurdles - successful owners or founders of businesses in a wide variety of sectors from Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, WBG, Lebanon, Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Yemen, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. But as statistics and anecdotal evidence show many other women are held back, costing the Middle East and North African countries millions of jobs; the region has the world"s lowest rate - 32 percent - of female workforce participation. "
The World Bank"s goal is to increase women"s entrepreneurship to strengthen the private sector, create jobs, and advance women"s empowerment through economic opportunities," says Nadereh Chamlou, Senior Advisor and Gender Coordinator in the Office of the Chief Economist for the Bank"s Middle East and North Africa (MENA ) region. The Middle East and North Africa region needs to create some 90 million jobs over the next 20 years - "twice as fast as in the past," says Mustapha Nabli, Chief MENA Economist at the World Bank. "These jobs can only be created by a competitive and diversified private sector, since the public sector and oil-driven models of the past have failed to create the needed jobs." […]
Women in the Middle East and North Africa have considerable financial resources, sometimes through inheritance. A study in one country found $26.6 billion in women"s bank accounts sitting idle because of laws and regulations, which prevented women from opening businesses. Other obstacles were more cultural than structural, such as the negative perception often attached to working women in the Middle East and North Africa. […]

In the United States, women-owned business is the fastest growing segment of the private sector which has an impact on the productivity and competitiveness of the economy. With the investments that the Middle East and North Africa has made to advance women"s education, identifying and removing barriers that women face to start up their businesses can spur growth, according to the Bank.

News and Broadcast, March 8, 2006



Check the item in which the word(s) in boldtype can be replaced in the sentence by the one(s) in italics.

a) "because women were not allowed to be issued licenses in her country." thus
b) "The women who … were among those who made it despite the hurdles" in spite of.
c) "But as statistics and anecdotal evidence show many other women are held back," moreover.
d) "…since the public sector and oil-driven models of the past have failed to create the needed jobs." therefore.
e) "such as the negative perception often attached to working women in the Middle East and North Africa." once.

FCC - SEFAZ-SP - Agente Fiscal de Rendas - 2006
Inglês / Vocabulary

Avoidance and evasion compared:
The United States example

The use of the terms tax avoidance and tax evasion can vary depending on the jurisdiction. In the United States, for example, the term "tax evasion" (or, more precisely, "attempted tax evasion") generally consists of criminal conduct, the purpose of which is to avoid the assessment or payment of a tax that is already legally owed at the time of the criminal conduct. (The term "assessment" is here used in the technical sense of a statutory assessment: the formal administrative act of a duly appointed employee of the Internal Revenue Service who records the tax on the books of the United States Treasury after certain administrative prerequisites have been met. In the case of Federal income tax, this act generally occurs after the close of the tax year - and usually after a tax return has been filed.)
By contrast, the term "tax avoidance" is used in the United States to describe lawful conduct, the purpose of which is to avoid the creation of a tax liability. Tax evasion involves breaking the law; tax avoidance is using legal means to avoid owing tax in the first place. An evaded tax remains a tax legally owed. An avoided tax (in the U.S. sense) is a tax liability that has never existed. A simple example of tax avoidance in this sense is the situation where a business considers selling a particular asset at a huge gain but, after consulting with a tax adviser, decides not to [VERB] the sale. __ 97___ no sale occurs, no gain is realized. The additional income tax liability that [TO GENERATE] by the inclusion of the gain on the sale in the computation of taxable income is simply not incurred, as there was no sale and no realized gain.

(Adapted from Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/w iki/Tax_evasion)


A forma verbal correta de [TO GENERATE] no texto é

a) will be generated.
b) was generated.
c) generates.
d) has been generating.
e) would have been generated.

FCC - SEFAZ-SP - Agente Fiscal de Rendas - 2006
Inglês / Vocabulary

Avoidance and evasion compared:
The United States example

The use of the terms tax avoidance and tax evasion can vary depending on the jurisdiction. In the United States, for example, the term "tax evasion" (or, more precisely, "attempted tax evasion") generally consists of criminal conduct, the purpose of which is to avoid the assessment or payment of a tax that is already legally owed at the time of the criminal conduct. (The term "assessment" is here used in the technical sense of a statutory assessment: the formal administrative act of a duly appointed employee of the Internal Revenue Service who records the tax on the books of the United States Treasury after certain administrative prerequisites have been met. In the case of Federal income tax, this act generally occurs after the close of the tax year - and usually after a tax return has been filed.)
By contrast, the term "tax avoidance" is used in the United States to describe lawful conduct, the purpose of which is to avoid the creation of a tax liability. Tax evasion involves breaking the law; tax avoidance is using legal means to avoid owing tax in the first place. An evaded tax remains a tax legally owed. An avoided tax (in the U.S. sense) is a tax liability that has never existed. A simple example of tax avoidance in this sense is the situation where a business considers selling a particular asset at a huge gain but, after consulting with a tax adviser, decides not to [VERB] the sale. __ 97___ no sale occurs, no gain is realized. The additional income tax liability that [TO GENERATE] by the inclusion of the gain on the sale in the computation of taxable income is simply not incurred, as there was no sale and no realized gain.

(Adapted from Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/w iki/Tax_evasion)


A palavra que preenche corretamente a lacuna é

a) However.
b) Therefore.
c) Because.
d) Despite.
e) Although.

FCC - SEFAZ-SP - Agente Fiscal de Rendas - 2006
Inglês / Vocabulary

Avoidance and evasion compared:
The United States example

The use of the terms tax avoidance and tax evasion can vary depending on the jurisdiction. In the United States, for example, the term "tax evasion" (or, more precisely, "attempted tax evasion") generally consists of criminal conduct, the purpose of which is to avoid the assessment or payment of a tax that is already legally owed at the time of the criminal conduct. (The term "assessment" is here used in the technical sense of a statutory assessment: the formal administrative act of a duly appointed employee of the Internal Revenue Service who records the tax on the books of the United States Treasury after certain administrative prerequisites have been met. In the case of Federal income tax, this act generally occurs after the close of the tax year - and usually after a tax return has been filed.)
By contrast, the term "tax avoidance" is used in the United States to describe lawful conduct, the purpose of which is to avoid the creation of a tax liability. Tax evasion involves breaking the law; tax avoidance is using legal means to avoid owing tax in the first place. An evaded tax remains a tax legally owed. An avoided tax (in the U.S. sense) is a tax liability that has never existed. A simple example of tax avoidance in this sense is the situation where a business considers selling a particular asset at a huge gain but, after consulting with a tax adviser, decides not to [VERB] the sale. __ 97___ no sale occurs, no gain is realized. The additional income tax liability that [TO GENERATE] by the inclusion of the gain on the sale in the computation of taxable income is simply not incurred, as there was no sale and no realized gain.

(Adapted from Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/w iki/Tax_evasion)


O verbo que substitui corretamente [VERB] é

a) enhance.
b) refuse.
c) put an end to.
d) go through with.
e) get away with.



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