Questões de Inglês de Gramática

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CESGRANRIO - EPE - Advogado Júnior - 2007
Inglês / Gramática

Reducing the dependence on oil

Ildo Sauer, Gas and Energy Director, Petrobras

Brazil’s energy sector is following the worldwide
tendency towards greater diversification of primary energy
sources and the increased use of natural gas and
biofuels. There are several reasons for this change. The
05- most important are the environmental restrictions that
are gradually being adopted in the world’s principal
energy-consuming markets and the need to reduce the
dependence on oil, set against a scenario of accelerated
depletion in oil reserves and escalating prices.
10- The share of gas in Brazilian primary energy
consumption has more than doubled in a short period,
increasing from 4.1% in 1999 to 8.9% in 2004, and this
share is forecast to rise to 12% by 2010.
Over the past two decades, the world gas industry
15- has experienced a structural and regulatory
transformation. These changes have altered the strategic
behaviour of gas firms, with an intensification of
competition, the search for diversification (especially in
the case of power generation) and the internationalisation
20- of industry activities. Together, these changes have
radically changed the economic environment and the level
of competition in the industry.
Brazil’s gas industry is characterised by its late
development, although in recent years, internal supply
25- imports and demand have grown significantly — the
growth trajectory of recent years exceeds that of countries
with more mature markets, such as Spain, Argentina,
the UK and the US. And the outlook is positive for
continued growth over the next few years, particularly
30- when set against the investment plans already
announced in Brazil.
The country has a small transportation network
concentrated near the coast. The distribution network is
concentrated in the major consumption centres.
35- Domestic gas sources are largely offshore in the Campos
basin and Bolivia provides imports. Given the degree
of gas penetration in the country’s primary energy
consumption, the industry is poorly developed when
compared with other countries. The industry requires
40- heavy investment in expanding the transport and
distribution (T&D) networks, as well as in diversifying and
increasing its supplies. Such investments are necessary
for realising the industry’s enormous potential.
Another key industry highlight is the changing profile
45- of gas supply. A large part of the gas produced
domestically to date has been associated with oil
production. The latter diluting or even totally absorbing
the costs of exploiting the gas. In most cases, gas
50- production was feasible only in conjunction with oil
production activities. However, the country’s latest gas
finds are non-associated. Thus, an exclusively dedicated
structure must be developed to produce this gas —
translating into a significant rise in production costs. This
is more significant when analysed against the high costs
55- associated with the market for exploration and production
(E&P) sector equipment. In recent years, the leasing costs
of drilling rigs and E&P equipment have been climbing in
parallel with escalating oil prices. This directly affects endconsumer
prices.
60- In a world of primary energy consumption
diversification, of greater environmental restrictions and
the reduced dependence on oil, Brazil has been seeking
to develop alternative energy sources – principally natural
gas and biofuels. The gas industry holds enormous
65- potential for Brazil, although there is still a long way to go
before it reaches maturity and major investment is
required.

World Energy in 2006. copyright © 2006, World Energy Council.

p.29-31 (adapted)




The main purpose of the text is to:

a) criticize the significant rise in production costs of gas in Brazil.
b) list the advantages and disadvantages of the changing profile of gas supply.
c) discuss relevant issues in the use of gas as a primary energy resource in Brazil.
d) recommend the need for intensification of competition and greater diversification of primary energy sources.
e) evaluate all the current environmental restrictions adopted in the world"s principal energy-consuming markets.

CESGRANRIO - EPE - Advogado Júnior - 2007
Inglês / Gramática

Reducing the dependence on oil

Ildo Sauer, Gas and Energy Director, Petrobras

Brazil’s energy sector is following the worldwide
tendency towards greater diversification of primary energy
sources and the increased use of natural gas and
biofuels. There are several reasons for this change. The
05- most important are the environmental restrictions that
are gradually being adopted in the world’s principal
energy-consuming markets and the need to reduce the
dependence on oil, set against a scenario of accelerated
depletion in oil reserves and escalating prices.
10- The share of gas in Brazilian primary energy
consumption has more than doubled in a short period,
increasing from 4.1% in 1999 to 8.9% in 2004, and this
share is forecast to rise to 12% by 2010.
Over the past two decades, the world gas industry
15- has experienced a structural and regulatory
transformation. These changes have altered the strategic
behaviour of gas firms, with an intensification of
competition, the search for diversification (especially in
the case of power generation) and the internationalisation
20- of industry activities. Together, these changes have
radically changed the economic environment and the level
of competition in the industry.
Brazil’s gas industry is characterised by its late
development, although in recent years, internal supply
25- imports and demand have grown significantly — the
growth trajectory of recent years exceeds that of countries
with more mature markets, such as Spain, Argentina,
the UK and the US. And the outlook is positive for
continued growth over the next few years, particularly
30- when set against the investment plans already
announced in Brazil.
The country has a small transportation network
concentrated near the coast. The distribution network is
concentrated in the major consumption centres.
35- Domestic gas sources are largely offshore in the Campos
basin and Bolivia provides imports. Given the degree
of gas penetration in the country’s primary energy
consumption, the industry is poorly developed when
compared with other countries. The industry requires
40- heavy investment in expanding the transport and
distribution (T&D) networks, as well as in diversifying and
increasing its supplies. Such investments are necessary
for realising the industry’s enormous potential.
Another key industry highlight is the changing profile
45- of gas supply. A large part of the gas produced
domestically to date has been associated with oil
production. The latter diluting or even totally absorbing
the costs of exploiting the gas. In most cases, gas
50- production was feasible only in conjunction with oil
production activities. However, the country’s latest gas
finds are non-associated. Thus, an exclusively dedicated
structure must be developed to produce this gas —
translating into a significant rise in production costs. This
is more significant when analysed against the high costs
55- associated with the market for exploration and production
(E&P) sector equipment. In recent years, the leasing costs
of drilling rigs and E&P equipment have been climbing in
parallel with escalating oil prices. This directly affects endconsumer
prices.
60- In a world of primary energy consumption
diversification, of greater environmental restrictions and
the reduced dependence on oil, Brazil has been seeking
to develop alternative energy sources – principally natural
gas and biofuels. The gas industry holds enormous
65- potential for Brazil, although there is still a long way to go
before it reaches maturity and major investment is
required.

World Energy in 2006. copyright © 2006, World Energy Council.

p.29-31 (adapted)

According to the author, the world gas industry, since the late 80s, has:

a) maintained a local focus and faced huge losses.
b) felt the need to resort to traditional power generation mechanisms.
c) become a less competitive market due to the rising competition of biofuels.
d) suffered changes in both the structure of the industry and the norms that regulate it.
e) banned the internationalization of its activities in search for higher national economic advantages.

CESGRANRIO - EPE - Advogado Júnior - 2007
Inglês / Gramática

Reducing the dependence on oil

Ildo Sauer, Gas and Energy Director, Petrobras

Brazil’s energy sector is following the worldwide
tendency towards greater diversification of primary energy
sources and the increased use of natural gas and
biofuels. There are several reasons for this change. The
05- most important are the environmental restrictions that
are gradually being adopted in the world’s principal
energy-consuming markets and the need to reduce the
dependence on oil, set against a scenario of accelerated
depletion in oil reserves and escalating prices.
10- The share of gas in Brazilian primary energy
consumption has more than doubled in a short period,
increasing from 4.1% in 1999 to 8.9% in 2004, and this
share is forecast to rise to 12% by 2010.
Over the past two decades, the world gas industry
15- has experienced a structural and regulatory
transformation. These changes have altered the strategic
behaviour of gas firms, with an intensification of
competition, the search for diversification (especially in
the case of power generation) and the internationalisation
20- of industry activities. Together, these changes have
radically changed the economic environment and the level
of competition in the industry.
Brazil’s gas industry is characterised by its late
development, although in recent years, internal supply
25- imports and demand have grown significantly — the
growth trajectory of recent years exceeds that of countries
with more mature markets, such as Spain, Argentina,
the UK and the US. And the outlook is positive for
continued growth over the next few years, particularly
30- when set against the investment plans already
announced in Brazil.
The country has a small transportation network
concentrated near the coast. The distribution network is
concentrated in the major consumption centres.
35- Domestic gas sources are largely offshore in the Campos
basin and Bolivia provides imports. Given the degree
of gas penetration in the country’s primary energy
consumption, the industry is poorly developed when
compared with other countries. The industry requires
40- heavy investment in expanding the transport and
distribution (T&D) networks, as well as in diversifying and
increasing its supplies. Such investments are necessary
for realising the industry’s enormous potential.
Another key industry highlight is the changing profile
45- of gas supply. A large part of the gas produced
domestically to date has been associated with oil
production. The latter diluting or even totally absorbing
the costs of exploiting the gas. In most cases, gas
50- production was feasible only in conjunction with oil
production activities. However, the country’s latest gas
finds are non-associated. Thus, an exclusively dedicated
structure must be developed to produce this gas —
translating into a significant rise in production costs. This
is more significant when analysed against the high costs
55- associated with the market for exploration and production
(E&P) sector equipment. In recent years, the leasing costs
of drilling rigs and E&P equipment have been climbing in
parallel with escalating oil prices. This directly affects endconsumer
prices.
60- In a world of primary energy consumption
diversification, of greater environmental restrictions and
the reduced dependence on oil, Brazil has been seeking
to develop alternative energy sources – principally natural
gas and biofuels. The gas industry holds enormous
65- potential for Brazil, although there is still a long way to go
before it reaches maturity and major investment is
required.

World Energy in 2006. copyright © 2006, World Energy Council.

p.29-31 (adapted)

In Brazil, the gas industry can currently be considered:

a) a segment growing at a slow rate, despite the forecast of a few prospective investments in the area.
b) a promising economic segment that has recently exceeded results of more traditional markets.
c) more mature than the Argentinian gas industry, yet not as profitable.
d) feasible, as it requires no investment in transport and distribution.
e) potentially weak in terms of national demands for its growth.

CESGRANRIO - EPE - Advogado Júnior - 2007
Inglês / Gramática

Reducing the dependence on oil

Ildo Sauer, Gas and Energy Director, Petrobras

Brazil’s energy sector is following the worldwide
tendency towards greater diversification of primary energy
sources and the increased use of natural gas and
biofuels. There are several reasons for this change. The
05- most important are the environmental restrictions that
are gradually being adopted in the world’s principal
energy-consuming markets and the need to reduce the
dependence on oil, set against a scenario of accelerated
depletion in oil reserves and escalating prices.
10- The share of gas in Brazilian primary energy
consumption has more than doubled in a short period,
increasing from 4.1% in 1999 to 8.9% in 2004, and this
share is forecast to rise to 12% by 2010.
Over the past two decades, the world gas industry
15- has experienced a structural and regulatory
transformation. These changes have altered the strategic
behaviour of gas firms, with an intensification of
competition, the search for diversification (especially in
the case of power generation) and the internationalisation
20- of industry activities. Together, these changes have
radically changed the economic environment and the level
of competition in the industry.
Brazil’s gas industry is characterised by its late
development, although in recent years, internal supply
25- imports and demand have grown significantly — the
growth trajectory of recent years exceeds that of countries
with more mature markets, such as Spain, Argentina,
the UK and the US. And the outlook is positive for
continued growth over the next few years, particularly
30- when set against the investment plans already
announced in Brazil.
The country has a small transportation network
concentrated near the coast. The distribution network is
concentrated in the major consumption centres.
35- Domestic gas sources are largely offshore in the Campos
basin and Bolivia provides imports. Given the degree
of gas penetration in the country’s primary energy
consumption, the industry is poorly developed when
compared with other countries. The industry requires
40- heavy investment in expanding the transport and
distribution (T&D) networks, as well as in diversifying and
increasing its supplies. Such investments are necessary
for realising the industry’s enormous potential.
Another key industry highlight is the changing profile
45- of gas supply. A large part of the gas produced
domestically to date has been associated with oil
production. The latter diluting or even totally absorbing
the costs of exploiting the gas. In most cases, gas
50- production was feasible only in conjunction with oil
production activities. However, the country’s latest gas
finds are non-associated. Thus, an exclusively dedicated
structure must be developed to produce this gas —
translating into a significant rise in production costs. This
is more significant when analysed against the high costs
55- associated with the market for exploration and production
(E&P) sector equipment. In recent years, the leasing costs
of drilling rigs and E&P equipment have been climbing in
parallel with escalating oil prices. This directly affects endconsumer
prices.
60- In a world of primary energy consumption
diversification, of greater environmental restrictions and
the reduced dependence on oil, Brazil has been seeking
to develop alternative energy sources – principally natural
gas and biofuels. The gas industry holds enormous
65- potential for Brazil, although there is still a long way to go
before it reaches maturity and major investment is
required.

World Energy in 2006. copyright © 2006, World Energy Council.

p.29-31 (adapted)

Mark the only correct statement.

a) "this change" (line 4) refers to "reasons" (line 4).
b) "that of" (line 26) refers to "years" (line 26).
c) "its" (line 42) refers to "industry" (line 39).
d) "The latter" (line 47) refers to "gas produced domestically" (lines 45-46).
e) "This" (line 53) refers to "(E&P) sector equipment" (line 56). p.29-
31)(adapted)

CESGRANRIO - EPE - Advogado Júnior - 2007
Inglês / Gramática

Reducing the dependence on oil

Ildo Sauer, Gas and Energy Director, Petrobras

Brazil’s energy sector is following the worldwide
tendency towards greater diversification of primary energy
sources and the increased use of natural gas and
biofuels. There are several reasons for this change. The
05- most important are the environmental restrictions that
are gradually being adopted in the world’s principal
energy-consuming markets and the need to reduce the
dependence on oil, set against a scenario of accelerated
depletion in oil reserves and escalating prices.
10- The share of gas in Brazilian primary energy
consumption has more than doubled in a short period,
increasing from 4.1% in 1999 to 8.9% in 2004, and this
share is forecast to rise to 12% by 2010.
Over the past two decades, the world gas industry
15- has experienced a structural and regulatory
transformation. These changes have altered the strategic
behaviour of gas firms, with an intensification of
competition, the search for diversification (especially in
the case of power generation) and the internationalisation
20- of industry activities. Together, these changes have
radically changed the economic environment and the level
of competition in the industry.
Brazil’s gas industry is characterised by its late
development, although in recent years, internal supply
25- imports and demand have grown significantly — the
growth trajectory of recent years exceeds that of countries
with more mature markets, such as Spain, Argentina,
the UK and the US. And the outlook is positive for
continued growth over the next few years, particularly
30- when set against the investment plans already
announced in Brazil.
The country has a small transportation network
concentrated near the coast. The distribution network is
concentrated in the major consumption centres.
35- Domestic gas sources are largely offshore in the Campos
basin and Bolivia provides imports. Given the degree
of gas penetration in the country’s primary energy
consumption, the industry is poorly developed when
compared with other countries. The industry requires
40- heavy investment in expanding the transport and
distribution (T&D) networks, as well as in diversifying and
increasing its supplies. Such investments are necessary
for realising the industry’s enormous potential.
Another key industry highlight is the changing profile
45- of gas supply. A large part of the gas produced
domestically to date has been associated with oil
production. The latter diluting or even totally absorbing
the costs of exploiting the gas. In most cases, gas
50- production was feasible only in conjunction with oil
production activities. However, the country’s latest gas
finds are non-associated. Thus, an exclusively dedicated
structure must be developed to produce this gas —
translating into a significant rise in production costs. This
is more significant when analysed against the high costs
55- associated with the market for exploration and production
(E&P) sector equipment. In recent years, the leasing costs
of drilling rigs and E&P equipment have been climbing in
parallel with escalating oil prices. This directly affects endconsumer
prices.
60- In a world of primary energy consumption
diversification, of greater environmental restrictions and
the reduced dependence on oil, Brazil has been seeking
to develop alternative energy sources – principally natural
gas and biofuels. The gas industry holds enormous
65- potential for Brazil, although there is still a long way to go
before it reaches maturity and major investment is
required.

World Energy in 2006. copyright © 2006, World Energy Council.

p.29-31 (adapted)

According to the text, which of the following is NOT going to be a problem for the future of the gas industry in Brazil?

a) The need for Bolivian imports and the domestic offshore gas sources.
b) The need for intense capital investments to expand the distribution networks.
c) The restricted transportation network and its concentration along the Brazilian coastline.
d) The increased competition in the world market, which can easily stifle the sector in Brazil.
e) The interest of Brazilian authorities in developing alternative energy sources including biofuels and natural gas.

CESGRANRIO - EPE - Advogado Júnior - 2007
Inglês / Gramática

Reducing the dependence on oil

Ildo Sauer, Gas and Energy Director, Petrobras

Brazil’s energy sector is following the worldwide
tendency towards greater diversification of primary energy
sources and the increased use of natural gas and
biofuels. There are several reasons for this change. The
05- most important are the environmental restrictions that
are gradually being adopted in the world’s principal
energy-consuming markets and the need to reduce the
dependence on oil, set against a scenario of accelerated
depletion in oil reserves and escalating prices.
10- The share of gas in Brazilian primary energy
consumption has more than doubled in a short period,
increasing from 4.1% in 1999 to 8.9% in 2004, and this
share is forecast to rise to 12% by 2010.
Over the past two decades, the world gas industry
15- has experienced a structural and regulatory
transformation. These changes have altered the strategic
behaviour of gas firms, with an intensification of
competition, the search for diversification (especially in
the case of power generation) and the internationalisation
20- of industry activities. Together, these changes have
radically changed the economic environment and the level
of competition in the industry.
Brazil’s gas industry is characterised by its late
development, although in recent years, internal supply
25- imports and demand have grown significantly — the
growth trajectory of recent years exceeds that of countries
with more mature markets, such as Spain, Argentina,
the UK and the US. And the outlook is positive for
continued growth over the next few years, particularly
30- when set against the investment plans already
announced in Brazil.
The country has a small transportation network
concentrated near the coast. The distribution network is
concentrated in the major consumption centres.
35- Domestic gas sources are largely offshore in the Campos
basin and Bolivia provides imports. Given the degree
of gas penetration in the country’s primary energy
consumption, the industry is poorly developed when
compared with other countries. The industry requires
40- heavy investment in expanding the transport and
distribution (T&D) networks, as well as in diversifying and
increasing its supplies. Such investments are necessary
for realising the industry’s enormous potential.
Another key industry highlight is the changing profile
45- of gas supply. A large part of the gas produced
domestically to date has been associated with oil
production. The latter diluting or even totally absorbing
the costs of exploiting the gas. In most cases, gas
50- production was feasible only in conjunction with oil
production activities. However, the country’s latest gas
finds are non-associated. Thus, an exclusively dedicated
structure must be developed to produce this gas —
translating into a significant rise in production costs. This
is more significant when analysed against the high costs
55- associated with the market for exploration and production
(E&P) sector equipment. In recent years, the leasing costs
of drilling rigs and E&P equipment have been climbing in
parallel with escalating oil prices. This directly affects endconsumer
prices.
60- In a world of primary energy consumption
diversification, of greater environmental restrictions and
the reduced dependence on oil, Brazil has been seeking
to develop alternative energy sources – principally natural
gas and biofuels. The gas industry holds enormous
65- potential for Brazil, although there is still a long way to go
before it reaches maturity and major investment is
required.

World Energy in 2006. copyright © 2006, World Energy Council.

p.29-31 (adapted)



Choose the only alternative that corresponds in meaning to the following sentence in Paragraph 5 "Given the degree of gas penetration in the country"s primary energy consumption, the industry is poorly developed when compared with other countries."(lines 36- 39).

a) The Brazilian gas industry is less developed in relation to that of other countries if one considers the share of gas in Brazilian primary energy consumption.
b) The Brazilian government gives large incentives for an increased penetration of primary energy sources in the market.
c) The degree of industrial development in Brazil is poor and requires alternative primary energy sources from other countries.
d) The poor development of the gas industry in other countries results in a lower share in primary energy consumption.
e) The gas penetration in Brazilian primary energy consumption reveals a poorly developed country.

CESGRANRIO - EPE - Advogado Júnior - 2007
Inglês / Gramática

Reducing the dependence on oil

Ildo Sauer, Gas and Energy Director, Petrobras

Brazil’s energy sector is following the worldwide
tendency towards greater diversification of primary energy
sources and the increased use of natural gas and
biofuels. There are several reasons for this change. The
05- most important are the environmental restrictions that
are gradually being adopted in the world’s principal
energy-consuming markets and the need to reduce the
dependence on oil, set against a scenario of accelerated
depletion in oil reserves and escalating prices.
10- The share of gas in Brazilian primary energy
consumption has more than doubled in a short period,
increasing from 4.1% in 1999 to 8.9% in 2004, and this
share is forecast to rise to 12% by 2010.
Over the past two decades, the world gas industry
15- has experienced a structural and regulatory
transformation. These changes have altered the strategic
behaviour of gas firms, with an intensification of
competition, the search for diversification (especially in
the case of power generation) and the internationalisation
20- of industry activities. Together, these changes have
radically changed the economic environment and the level
of competition in the industry.
Brazil’s gas industry is characterised by its late
development, although in recent years, internal supply
25- imports and demand have grown significantly — the
growth trajectory of recent years exceeds that of countries
with more mature markets, such as Spain, Argentina,
the UK and the US. And the outlook is positive for
continued growth over the next few years, particularly
30- when set against the investment plans already
announced in Brazil.
The country has a small transportation network
concentrated near the coast. The distribution network is
concentrated in the major consumption centres.
35- Domestic gas sources are largely offshore in the Campos
basin and Bolivia provides imports. Given the degree
of gas penetration in the country’s primary energy
consumption, the industry is poorly developed when
compared with other countries. The industry requires
40- heavy investment in expanding the transport and
distribution (T&D) networks, as well as in diversifying and
increasing its supplies. Such investments are necessary
for realising the industry’s enormous potential.
Another key industry highlight is the changing profile
45- of gas supply. A large part of the gas produced
domestically to date has been associated with oil
production. The latter diluting or even totally absorbing
the costs of exploiting the gas. In most cases, gas
50- production was feasible only in conjunction with oil
production activities. However, the country’s latest gas
finds are non-associated. Thus, an exclusively dedicated
structure must be developed to produce this gas —
translating into a significant rise in production costs. This
is more significant when analysed against the high costs
55- associated with the market for exploration and production
(E&P) sector equipment. In recent years, the leasing costs
of drilling rigs and E&P equipment have been climbing in
parallel with escalating oil prices. This directly affects endconsumer
prices.
60- In a world of primary energy consumption
diversification, of greater environmental restrictions and
the reduced dependence on oil, Brazil has been seeking
to develop alternative energy sources – principally natural
gas and biofuels. The gas industry holds enormous
65- potential for Brazil, although there is still a long way to go
before it reaches maturity and major investment is
required.

World Energy in 2006. copyright © 2006, World Energy Council.

p.29-31 (adapted)



Check the only correct option.

a) "depletion" (line 9) means the same as abundance.
b) "forecast" (line 13) and backcast are perfect antonyms.
c) "set against" (line 30) and set forth have equivalent meanings.
d) "to date" (line 46) and until now have the same meanings.
e) "feasible" (line 49) means unlikely.

CESGRANRIO - EPE - Advogado Júnior - 2007
Inglês / Gramática

Reducing the dependence on oil

Ildo Sauer, Gas and Energy Director, Petrobras

Brazil’s energy sector is following the worldwide
tendency towards greater diversification of primary energy
sources and the increased use of natural gas and
biofuels. There are several reasons for this change. The
05- most important are the environmental restrictions that
are gradually being adopted in the world’s principal
energy-consuming markets and the need to reduce the
dependence on oil, set against a scenario of accelerated
depletion in oil reserves and escalating prices.
10- The share of gas in Brazilian primary energy
consumption has more than doubled in a short period,
increasing from 4.1% in 1999 to 8.9% in 2004, and this
share is forecast to rise to 12% by 2010.
Over the past two decades, the world gas industry
15- has experienced a structural and regulatory
transformation. These changes have altered the strategic
behaviour of gas firms, with an intensification of
competition, the search for diversification (especially in
the case of power generation) and the internationalisation
20- of industry activities. Together, these changes have
radically changed the economic environment and the level
of competition in the industry.
Brazil’s gas industry is characterised by its late
development, although in recent years, internal supply
25- imports and demand have grown significantly — the
growth trajectory of recent years exceeds that of countries
with more mature markets, such as Spain, Argentina,
the UK and the US. And the outlook is positive for
continued growth over the next few years, particularly
30- when set against the investment plans already
announced in Brazil.
The country has a small transportation network
concentrated near the coast. The distribution network is
concentrated in the major consumption centres.
35- Domestic gas sources are largely offshore in the Campos
basin and Bolivia provides imports. Given the degree
of gas penetration in the country’s primary energy
consumption, the industry is poorly developed when
compared with other countries. The industry requires
40- heavy investment in expanding the transport and
distribution (T&D) networks, as well as in diversifying and
increasing its supplies. Such investments are necessary
for realising the industry’s enormous potential.
Another key industry highlight is the changing profile
45- of gas supply. A large part of the gas produced
domestically to date has been associated with oil
production. The latter diluting or even totally absorbing
the costs of exploiting the gas. In most cases, gas
50- production was feasible only in conjunction with oil
production activities. However, the country’s latest gas
finds are non-associated. Thus, an exclusively dedicated
structure must be developed to produce this gas —
translating into a significant rise in production costs. This
is more significant when analysed against the high costs
55- associated with the market for exploration and production
(E&P) sector equipment. In recent years, the leasing costs
of drilling rigs and E&P equipment have been climbing in
parallel with escalating oil prices. This directly affects endconsumer
prices.
60- In a world of primary energy consumption
diversification, of greater environmental restrictions and
the reduced dependence on oil, Brazil has been seeking
to develop alternative energy sources – principally natural
gas and biofuels. The gas industry holds enormous
65- potential for Brazil, although there is still a long way to go
before it reaches maturity and major investment is
required.

World Energy in 2006. copyright © 2006, World Energy Council.

p.29-31 (adapted)



According to Paragraph 6 (lines 44- 59), it is correct to state that:

a) production costs will not affect end-consumer prices in the gas industry.
b) the need for drilling rigs and other equipment for exploring gas are not major concerns for the Brazilian gas industry.
c) the most recently found sources of gas have the advantage of being associated with oil exploration and production.
d) the production of gas in Brazil has, until recently, been separated from the production of oil and has thus been economically advantageous.
e) heavy investment in a gas-dedicated structure will be the major drawback for the exploration and production of the recently found gas supplies.

CESGRANRIO - EPE - Advogado Júnior - 2007
Inglês / Gramática

Reducing the dependence on oil

Ildo Sauer, Gas and Energy Director, Petrobras

Brazil’s energy sector is following the worldwide
tendency towards greater diversification of primary energy
sources and the increased use of natural gas and
biofuels. There are several reasons for this change. The
05- most important are the environmental restrictions that
are gradually being adopted in the world’s principal
energy-consuming markets and the need to reduce the
dependence on oil, set against a scenario of accelerated
depletion in oil reserves and escalating prices.
10- The share of gas in Brazilian primary energy
consumption has more than doubled in a short period,
increasing from 4.1% in 1999 to 8.9% in 2004, and this
share is forecast to rise to 12% by 2010.
Over the past two decades, the world gas industry
15- has experienced a structural and regulatory
transformation. These changes have altered the strategic
behaviour of gas firms, with an intensification of
competition, the search for diversification (especially in
the case of power generation) and the internationalisation
20- of industry activities. Together, these changes have
radically changed the economic environment and the level
of competition in the industry.
Brazil’s gas industry is characterised by its late
development, although in recent years, internal supply
25- imports and demand have grown significantly — the
growth trajectory of recent years exceeds that of countries
with more mature markets, such as Spain, Argentina,
the UK and the US. And the outlook is positive for
continued growth over the next few years, particularly
30- when set against the investment plans already
announced in Brazil.
The country has a small transportation network
concentrated near the coast. The distribution network is
concentrated in the major consumption centres.
35- Domestic gas sources are largely offshore in the Campos
basin and Bolivia provides imports. Given the degree
of gas penetration in the country’s primary energy
consumption, the industry is poorly developed when
compared with other countries. The industry requires
40- heavy investment in expanding the transport and
distribution (T&D) networks, as well as in diversifying and
increasing its supplies. Such investments are necessary
for realising the industry’s enormous potential.
Another key industry highlight is the changing profile
45- of gas supply. A large part of the gas produced
domestically to date has been associated with oil
production. The latter diluting or even totally absorbing
the costs of exploiting the gas. In most cases, gas
50- production was feasible only in conjunction with oil
production activities. However, the country’s latest gas
finds are non-associated. Thus, an exclusively dedicated
structure must be developed to produce this gas —
translating into a significant rise in production costs. This
is more significant when analysed against the high costs
55- associated with the market for exploration and production
(E&P) sector equipment. In recent years, the leasing costs
of drilling rigs and E&P equipment have been climbing in
parallel with escalating oil prices. This directly affects endconsumer
prices.
60- In a world of primary energy consumption
diversification, of greater environmental restrictions and
the reduced dependence on oil, Brazil has been seeking
to develop alternative energy sources – principally natural
gas and biofuels. The gas industry holds enormous
65- potential for Brazil, although there is still a long way to go
before it reaches maturity and major investment is
required.

World Energy in 2006. copyright © 2006, World Energy Council.

p.29-31 (adapted)

"Natural gas is fast becoming the economic and environmental fuel of choice. The last 30 years have seen the global industry almost triple in size and similar growth can be expected in the next 30, as national governments and global industry look to gas to ensure the stability and diversity of their energy supplies." This comment by Linda Cook, Executive Director of a British Gas and Power Company, reproduces a similar idea to that in the following segment from Ildo Sauer"s text:

a) "Brazil"s energy sector is following the worldwide tendency towards greater diversification of primary energy sources and the increased use of natural gas and biofuels." (lines 1-4)
b) "Over the past two decades, the world gas industry has experienced a structural and regulatory transformation." (lines 14-16)
c) "The distribution network is concentrated in the major consumption centres." (lines 33-34)
d) "The industry requires heavy investment in expanding the transport and distribution (T&D) networks," (lines 39-41)
e) "In most cases, gas production was feasible only in conjunction with oil production activities." (lines 48-50)

FCC - Banco Central - Analista - Area 1 - 2006
Inglês / Gramática

The Internet at Risk

Some 12,000 people convened last week in Tunisia for a United Nations conference about the Internet. Many delegates want an end to the U.S. Commerce Department"s control over the assignment of Web site addresses (for example, http://www.washington-%20post.com/ ) and e-mail accounts (for example, johndoe@aol.com). The delegates" argument is that unilateral U.S. control over these domain names reflects no more than the historical accident of the Internet"s origins. Why should the United States continue to control the registration of French and Chinese Internet addresses? It doesn"t control the registration of French and Chinese cars, whatever Henry Ford"s historic role in democratizing travel was.

The reformers" argument is attractive in theory and dangerous in practice. In an ideal world, unilateralism should be avoided. But in an imperfect world, unilateral solutions that run efficiently can be better than multilateral ones that __ 51 ____

The job of assigning domain names offers huge opportunities for abuse. __ 52 ___controls this function can decide to keep certain types of individuals or organizations offline (dissidents or opposition political groups, for example). Or it can allow them on in exchange for large fees. The striking feature of U.S. oversight of the Internet is that such abuses have not occurred.

It"s possible that a multilateral overseer of the Internet might be just as efficient. But the ponderous International Telecommunication Union, the U.N. body that would be a leading candidate to take over the domain registry, has a record of resisting innovation _ including the advent of the Internet.

Moreover, a multilateral domain-registering body would be caught between the different visions of its members: on the one side, autocratic regimes such as Saudi Arabia and China that want to restrict access to the Internet; on the other side, open societies that want low barriers to entry. These clashes of vision would probably make multilateral regulation inefficiently political.
You may say that this is a fair price to pay to uphold the principle of sovereignty. If a country wants to keep certain users from registering domain names (Nazi groups, child pornographers, criminals), then perhaps it has a right to do so. But the clinching argument is that countries can exercise that sovereignty to a reasonable degree without controlling domain names. They can order Internet users in their territory to take offensive material down. They can order their banks or credit card companies to refuse to process payments to unsavory Web sites based abroad. Indeed, governments" ample ability to regulate the Internet has already been demonstrated by some of the countries pushing for reform, such as authoritarian China. The sovereign nations of the world have no need to wrest control of the Internet from the United States, because they already have it. (Adapted from Washington Post, November 21, 2005; A14)



No texto, o verbo que preenche corretamente a lacuna é

a) don´t.
b) do.
c) can.
d) can´t.
e) doesn´t.

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